SUMERIAN - TURKISH COMPARISON LIST
(WITH 200 CONCEPT GROUP ENGLISH WORDS)
by
Polat Kaya
Copyright © 1997, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

INTRODUCTION

Ever since the Sumerian language became known for the world of the linguists, there have been claimes and counter claimes to the view that the Sumerian and Turkish languages are related. While some groups vehemently deny the linguistic affinity between the two languages, others gingerly but nevertheless positively admit the affinity of these two languages.

In the following list, a set of 200 English words, numbered from 1 to 200 and alternatively known as "200 concept group Hymes List", and their correspondences in Sumerian and Turkish are given. Under each selection in English, other concepts related to the selected word's meaning are also entered. Thus in the first two colums, we have the English and Sumerian entries and in the third colum, Turkish entries are provided.

The purpose of this study is to bring to attention those Sumerian and Turkish words which correspond to each other and/or seemingly related to each other in form and in meaning and at the same time to see if Turkish can pass a given test in order to prove its kinship to the Sumerian. From the listed words given below, there seems to be ample evidence that the Turkish, as members of Altaic languages, have come from a root that also included the Sumerian language. In view of the fact that the Sumerian and Turkish have been separated from each other or from a parent language, that is if they had a common parent in the past, for at least five thousand years, it is surprising to see that there still are many words which correspond to each other in both languages.

It is hoped that other workers in this field will contribute to this list to improve its level of accuracy such that it will make the Sumerian-Turkish relationship an unquestionably recognized one.

At this point I would like to acknowledge, with special thanks, the contribution of Fred Hamori who provided the 200 word concept group Hymes List.

The Sumerian being an ancient and dead language, its present day reading has been done through the intermediary of Akkadian and other Semitic languages. Since language is the most important part of any culture, those who did not live the Sumerian culture that created the Sumerian language would not be able to define exact meanings of Sumerian words no matter how efficient readers they may be of the Sumerian cuneiform writing system. Therefore some degree of inexactness is expected in the definition and meaning of each Sumerian word. However, since the list given below is based on the works of some of the eminent scholars of the field, it can be viewed as up to date.

As for the Turkic correspondences of the Sumerian words given in the list below, I have tried to find Turkish correspondences from archaic as well as the living Turkic languages.

According to Dell Hymes, [Dell Hymes, "Lexikostatistics so far", Current Antropology, pages 30-31 University of Chicago, 1960], we have the following mathematical relationship between languages that have the same root but separated from each other in the past:

t = log c: log r where t is the time of separation, c is the remaining root words, r is the ratio of remaining words to original. (86 words left after 1,000 years based on tests)

If t = 1,000 years, Nt/No = r**(1/1000) = c where Nt is the total root words remaining after time separation t and No is the number of root words from the root language in the list (time zero)

t/1000 * log r = log c

t/1000 = log c/ log r where logr = log 0.86

if t = 5000 years then 5000/1000 = 5 ; 5 = log c / log r ; 5 * log r = log c or 5 * log 0.86 = log c;

log c= 5* ( 0.93450 -1 ) = (4.67250 - 5); alog c = c = alog(0.67250 -1) = 4.704/10 = .4704

or 47% of the remaining words.

Thus, a language that has 47% of the root words of the following Sumerian list can be a direct descendant of that language acording to Hymes.

(In the list below following lettering is used in Turkish words: s^=sh; ü; ö; î; g~= yumus^ak g)

ENGLISH - SUMERIAN - TURKISH 200-WORDS COMPARISON LIST

ENGLISH SUMERIAN TURKISH1 ALL

all

--

as, like, which

all sorts of things

equal, likeness

totality

--

--

kis^

a.na me.a.bi

àm

em-nam

man

imin

--

bütün, hep, her kes, heme, hamî, tam

her kes, barca, kamag [ODes: 613, 661], [AVG, 76]

hamî (her kes) = everyone, all

kimi = like

her s^ey =every thing

ta-mam

hamî, tüm, tamam = all, totality kamag [AVG, 76] = all,

totality

2 AND

and

--

u3

u, (dahi, taki [ODes: 667])

u (ve [MuEr, 18, 19]) = and (1)

3 ANIMAL

animal

--

--

animal

animal

--

animal

--

mas^ 2 s>l

mas^

mus^

a2-lal 2/DSL334

álad /DSL297,3

--

álad /DSL297,3 d>k

mal, hayvan

mal

mal-ak, balak = young of a water buffalo [TDK]

m>k kus^ = bird

lal = konus^amayan, dilsiz, hayvan

mal-ak, balak= young (up to one year old) of animals like

cow, buffalo; bala = young child

balak (balik [AVG, 266]) = fish

4 ASHES

dust, sand, mud

dry up

ashes, smoke?

ashes

--

sahar -h->-m-

s^a

ubilla 2

kül, toz

çamur = mud; toz =dust; kum = sand

s^o-rak, ço-rak tarla = dried up field

kül = ash; bulut = cloud

--

5 AT

at/of

at/of

locative infix

to lie with, be with

at a time, when

--

--

--

-a

-a

-ni-

ná n>l

ud, u

ud, u

ud, u

-de, -da, -e, -a

-de, -da, -e, -a locative suffix

-in, -în, -un, -ün = genetive suffix (as in ata-n-în=father's)

-de, -da =locative suffix meaning at.

-le, -la = suffix for togethernes.

öd = time [ODes: 466,467], [ONT: 12]

öd-en = this year, [ODes: 466,467], [ONT: 12]

öd-le (öyle, gün ortasi [IBML, 56] = noon

6 BACK

back

give birth

dark, afraid

nakedness

--

back

back, spine

--

eg~er

mud

mud

mug 2

--

has^ 4

ed-in

geri, arka, bel

geri =back; eg~er = saddle

dogur-mak

kara; korku

çem, çim (soyunma, yikanma, yuzme [IZEy, 139]) = naked,

bathing, undressing; çem-re-mek = to undress

arka

bel, bel kemigi

7 BAD

bad

--

--

hul

gig g>t

kötü, fena [fana]

öl = die; ölüm = diying

kötü

8 BARK

peel, pare, shell

--

--

--

skin

skin

--

bar b>t

bar b>s

--

bar

kus

kus

kabuk, kavuk

ter (kabuk, ince kabuk [IZEy, 655]) = shell; bark of a tree

sar- = to envelope, to wrap;

sar-gî= bandage; sar-î k= wrapped around, turban;

börk (kalpak) = leather hat

kas (kabuk, deri, tulum [IZEy, 381]

kîs^î r = bark, peel, crust, rind [RDH1]

9 BECAUSE

because, expose

by, through,

because of

because

--

bar

de

de

mu

çün, çünkü

çün, çünkü

--

--

--

10 BELLY

heart, womb

blood, vessel

suck

--

mb s^a3.g s>b

su

sub

karîn/garin

bag~-îr, ürek, yürek = heart;

su = water, river, rivulet ; damar

suv = water

11 BIG

big

big, great

--

--

--

mould, hill

big, high, large

--

gal

kur, gur

kur, gur

--

kur, gur

kur, gur

mah

büyük, ulu [ulug], bedük [AVG, 267]

gala (ulu, kala, kale) = big wall, fortress;

kur-ul-tay = summit (big) meeting; ulu = big, great

kur-mak = to establish an organization, to set up, to

organize

kur = row, file, tier, course of masonry [RDH1]

kur-gan, tepe (töpü [MuEr, 134]) = mould, hill.

--

12 BIRD

bird

--

mus^en m>k

kus^

kus^ = bird

13 BITE

bite

--

har (chew) h>s

dis^le, isir

isir, ez, çig~ne

14 BLACK

black

--

--

g~i 6-g, ku10.g

g~i 6-g, ku10.g

kara

kara

gök, kök = dark blue, sky; gök/kök = night

15 BLOOD

blood

blood; carnivoure

--

mud

uri

kan, (soy, sop, bir soydan gelen, [IZEy, 370])

kan

yür-ek/ür-ek =heart; böri, kurt =wolf (carnivoure)

16 TO BLOW

to blow

--

--

--

blow, kindl

.burn, roast

blow, shine,

blister

--

bug~ g>v

--

--

--

bul 4, bu 5

bil

bun 2, bu 7

--

üflemek, püvlemek [UYAT, 200]

puv-di-gen (üfleyen [UYAT, 200] = one who blows

puv-/üfle- = to blow; ür-mek (s^is^irmek, üflemek

[AVG, 306])

bug~u = vapour, misty air that comes out when blowing.

yakmak, tutus^turmak, üflemek

pis^irmek = to cook

--

--

17 BONE

bone

skull bone,

skeleton, corpse

side, rib

tooth, teeth, ivory

bone, knee, joint

--

--

--

g~ir3.pad.du

ugu

e ad 3,6, adda 2

ti

kak

--

--

kemik, süngük [IZEy, 615]

geri = back; ka-bur-ga = rib;

bas^ tasi = skull; tepe = top of head;

adam (ölü); ata = ancestor

ka-bur-ga = rib;

ez = crush; dis^ = tooth

kemik = bone; diz= knee; ek = joint.

keg-r-ek/geg-r- ek (Yumus^ak kemik, kîk-îr-dak

[IZEy, 273]) = lower rib [RDH1]

X1 BREAST

breast. chest

--

breast (female)

--

gaba

--

ubur

meme

gaba-k (ön, kîz-lîk, bekaret [HNO, 832]) = front; virginity

koyun (kucak) = bosom, breast, chest [RDH1,677]

übür = breast (Tunguz, Mongol [FH])

18 TO BREATHE

breath,

breath, wind

--

--

zi

lil l>y

lil l>y

nefes almak, soluk almak

so-luk, nefes

yil , yel = wind, air

yel-ek = wind maker; wing feathers, quill

19 TO BURN

to burn, roast

--

burn,burning

--

fever, burn

--

--

--

fever, burn

--

bil

--

gi-bil

ma5

tab

--

--

--

tab b>v

yan-mak / yak-mak

îl-ît-mak (îlî-, îlîn-, îlîk ol-, îsîn- [IZEy, 331] = to heat to

a warm state.

bil-gän (proto Altaic [FH]) = warm hot.

sî -cak, kî z-gî n

tav-la-mak (demiri dövülebilmesi icin belirli bir dereceye

kadar kîzdîrmak, îsîtmak, yakmak) = to heat iron (or other

material also) to proper degree so that it can be shaped by

beating. (Turkish proverb: "demir tavinda dövülür")

tav-lî (sîcak, îsî) = heat, heated

20 CHILD

child

--

child

baby, small

donkey foal

small, young

small, child

young animals

--

child, son

child, son

--

offspring, sprout

--

dumu

--

banda2/3 -nd->-l-

didi d>b

dur r>g

har h>k

tur t>k

mas^ s^>l

mas^ m>b

pes^

pes^

--

isim 2,3

cocuk, bala, yavru, bebek, (civciv, dana, kuzu)

damiz-lik (döl, tohum) = young animal kept for

breeding, seed (a child is exactly this)

bala = young child

bebe = baby

ko-dug~, sipa

kör-pe = young

kör-pe = young; bala = small child

mal-ak, bal-ak = young animal, cub, buffalo calf [RDH1]

bala (kus^ ve hayvan yavrusu [IZEy, 149])

piç = bastard child

pes^e (pas^a = ilk dogan erkek çocug~un takma adî

[IZEy, 76]) = nick name of first child (son) among Turks.

--

X2 CLAW, NAIL

scribe ?

Write

--

scratch, incise

cross plow

--

umbisañ

sar

--

hur h>s

gib g>

tirnak, cirnak

bitikci [AVG, 269] = writer, scriber

sür ([IZEy, 616])= scribe, plow, drive

yad, yaz, yay y>z>d [IZEy, 742] = write

sür = plow a field; drive

çiz-mek = to scratch

21 CLOUD

cloud

eclipsed, darkened

--

soak, cloud

to pass over

mistiness

--

du-gud

gid-im6

--

lum m>t

bàra

pir r>s

bulut, duman, sis, pus, buhar

du-man, bu-har, bulut

bulanmak (sislenmek,bulutlanmak [IZEy,106]) = to become misty,

to become cloudy, to become non-transparent

bu-lut (bulit [AVG, 270] = cloud

--

pus = mist

X3 CLOTHING

clothing

clothing

--

--

--

--

to dress

ornament

to dress

to spin

--

excellent, valuable

remove, cast off

linen,

undergarment

cloth crown?

--

thing

leather dresser

type of weaver

vestments (gods

& rulers)

--

tug2

tug2

tug2

tug

tug

--

ál

ul

mur, mu-

sur 8 s>b

sur 8

kala

s^ub -b>-m

gadda

gadda

kendu

--

nig

as-gab g>p

húb

pala

--

giysi, elbise, takî, s^al, aba, aspap, paltar

tok-u/dok-u = woven objects

tok-u-mak/dok-u-mak = to weave textile

tak-in-mak = to wear jewelry

tu-man = long wide drawers or trousers;

tug~ = horse-hair pennant, horsetail attached to a helmet or

flag-staff [RDH1].

al-lar giymek = to put on red or colorful dresses, decorate oneself

al = ornament, colorfull attachement

ör-tün-mek = to dress, to cover oneself

bur-mak = to twist, to spin

sar-mak = to wrap around

Kal-ak = woman's ornamented headgear [RDH1, 584]

çem-re; (çemrek [IZEy, 139]) = naked

keten (kettan [RDH1, 646]) = flax fiber, linen cloth;

keten (kettan [RDH1, 646]) = flax fiber, linen cloth;

kendir = rope made of hemp plant; kendir bezi = hempen cloth

[RDH1, 638]

s^ey, nes-ne

as-pap = clothing

aba =type of rough cloth, cloak

pal-tar = cübbe; pal-a = long quilted saddle-cloth [RDH2]

--

22 COLD

cold

cold

--

s^ed 7/10/11

s^ed 7/10/11

sog~-uk, üs^ü-müs^, (öl-müs^)

üs^ü-müs^, sog~-uk, üs^ü = cold

sazak (sog~-uk esen yel, poyraz, sert yel, [IZEy, 589]) = cold wind;

23 TO COME

to come

walk, go

--

lead away

--

g~en. -n>-l

du,

(e).re7.er, su8.b]

ir10

gel/kel

gel

gel, git

yü-rü-yür = he walks

yü-rü-yüs^ = walk, travel

X4 TO COOK

to boil

--

s^eg~6

pis^irmek, kaynatmak, îs-ît-mak

î-sîg~/îsît = heat; îsît-mak = to heat

24 TO COUNT

count, calculate

one

equate, compare

--

s^id d>y

za

saymak

say; sayi = number; es^it = equal, same

sa-yî = number

es^it = equal, same

25 TO CUT

separate,

cut off

breach a dike

snip, cut, trim

reap, harvest, shear

to cut, break

--

--

kud, ku 5

kud, ku 5 d>s

kud, ku 5

guru 5

ur 4

tar

tar t>h

kesmek, üzmek, koparmak

ko-p-ar = separate, break off; hud-ut = border,

kes = cut of

ged-ik, kîr-îk, yar-îk = breach, opening

kîr = snip; kes = cut, trim

or-ak = sickle; har-man = harvest

ta-ra-mak = to comb, mow down;

har-man = harvest

X5 TO DANCE

to dance

--

e.ne..dug4 [?]

oynamak

oyna = dance; oyna-dîk = we danced

26 DAY

day, sun, time

--

--

--

--

break of the day,

shine

--

ud, u 4

--

--

--

--

bar 6,7

bar 6,7 b>p

kün, gün (kin, kan)

üt/ot/od (ates^ [IZEy, 703]) = fire;

üt-mek/üt-i-mek (yakmak [IZEy, 703]) = to burn

öd (zaman [HNO, 825]) = time

öd-le/öy-le = noon time

kün, gün = sun, day

gün a-g~ar-masî = day break

par-la-mak

27 TO DIE

blood, die, dead

--

die, dead

--

die, kill

die, kill

destroyed, bent

netherworld

die, destroy, bent

--

--

us^2

us^2

us^2

--

ug 5,7,8

hul

gil l>r

hil-ib

gúr

--

ölmek

u-yu = sleep;

es-ki = old, broken, used up.

us-lu (sakin, sessiz) = unmoving, voiceless;

us-lu dur = don't make any move or noise

u (uyku [HNO, 873]) = sleep

öl= die; öl-dür = kill

kîr-îk = broken, destroyed; eg~-ri = bent

obir dünye, yer altî

kîr = break, destroy, kill;

kîr-gîn = desease

28 TO DIG

dig up, quarry

--

quarry

quarry

dig, scrape

plough land

clay pit, pit

field (cultivated)

--

ba.al

bal b>s

bal b>s

bal

dun, du 24

si

isi

as^-ag

kaz-mak, es^-mek, böl-mek

böl = divide or break into pieces

sal (büyük kaya) = big stone; rock

tas^ ocag~î = quarry

bal-ta = hatchet, ax (a tool perhaps also used in quarry)

--

çiz = scratch; es^ = to dig

--

es^-eg (es^ilmis^ yer), tarla; as^ = food

29 DIRTY

to be dirty

to clean wool

clay, mud

wastes, animal pen

--

--

lump of clay

--

pil -l>-s

pes^ 5,6

imi, em

kis-im 2,3,5

--

--

gir-in

kirli, pis

pis olmak

pis = dirty

ça-mur = mud

pîs^-kî/fus^-ku, pis-lik;

kes-ek (ker-me, kesilerek kurutulmus^ koyun

dîs^kîsî, tezek) = sheep waste (14).

kir = dirt;

30 DOG

dog, carnivour

dog, carnivour

dog, carnivour

dog, carnivour

guard

blood

fox

barking (dog)

--

ur

ur

ur

ur r>l

ur

ur

ka 5 a

gu g>l

it, köpek, kurt, böri, barak

kurt, böri = wolf; it = dog r>t?;

ürü-mek = barking of a dog;

ur-la-mak (hirlamak) = to growl

ulu-mak = howling of a dog;

koru-mak (one way of guarding is with a dog);

ür-ek (yürek) = heart;

kan-gal, ka-ra-bas^ = Anatolian sheep dogs;

ulu-mak = howling of a dog; ürü-mek = barking of a dog.

31 TO DRINK

to drink, to irrigate

irrigate

thirst, drink beer

--

nag~, na 8

in-gar

imma m>ç

içmek, emmek, sormak

iç-mek; su-la-mak = to irrigate

su-la = irrigate

içme = mineral waters; emik = suckle

32 DRY

dried fish, dried

dry up

dry up

dry up, misty

--

had

s^a

lah, ah

bir

kuru, karak (kurak) [ODes]

kuru-mus^ = dried up

îsî = heat

ku-rak

kuru-mus^ = dried up

33DULL

to soften

--

ten

kör, kesmez, sîkîcî

yumu-s^at-mak

34 DUST

earth, dust, sand, mud

dust

arrid, dry land

--

sahar -h->-m-

ukum

par-im p>ç

toz, kum, toprak, çamur

yer = earth; ça-mur = mud; toz = dust

kum = sand

çor-ak = arid, barren

35 EAR

ear

--

--

hear

hear, understand

--

g~es^ tug 2

tug 2

--

g~es^

g~es-tu

kulak

es^it =hear;

tuy/duy (duyma, sezme, kavrama, anlama, is^itme [IZEy, 207])

= feeling, intuition, hearing, understanding

es^it =hear;

es^it (anla);

36 EARTH

earth, place, where

--

--

clay, wetland

swamp

earth, dust

earth (bur=dust, dirt)

--

ki

--

--

im

um-un 5,6,11

sahar

s^u-bur

dünye, yer, kara, toprak

yer, kara, toprak;

köt-ki ( tepe, daglik yer, toprak yigini [IZEy, 441]) = hill,

mountainous place, pile of dirt.

ça-mur, balçik

bat-ak, çum-luk

--

--

37 EAT

eat

--

feed, nurse

to take in

feast

festival, feast

--

gu7

--

ku 4

ùnu

ez-en

ye, yut

yut = swallow;

gut = gulping sound that one makes as one swallows food.

em-dir

ka-pu = gate; kap-mak = to snatch

ün = voice, noise; s^en-lik (bayram) = feast

es-en = health and happiness

38 EGG

egg

--

--

nunuz

--

yumurta, tohum, döl

yumur-ta (töl, döl, to-hum) = egg

yumur (yuvarlak) = round

X6 EIGHT

eight

--

ussu [us-sa-am]

sekiz

se-kiz = 8

39 EYE

eye, see

face, front

see through

--

igi

igi

sim

göz, köz

göz = eye; gör-mek = to see; kör = blind

yüz (g>y) = face; öng/ön = front;

cam = glass

40 TO FALL

fall

fall, cast down

evening (setting sun)

--

s^ub

sus 2, su 2,3

us-an

düs^mek, yîkîlmak, çökmek

düs^mek

sus-turul-mak = silented, fallen

ak-s^am = evening

41 FAR

far

long, distant

long, distant, remote

distance

to go

to go

far

--

bad.r

gid

sud 4, su

us

ma3

ul.li 2

ri

uzak

uzak

uz-un = long; git = go

uz-un = long; uz-ak = far, distant, remote

uz-ak-lîk

--

--

-ri, -ru = directional suffix

42 FAT, GREASE

fat, grease

--

i3, ia

yag~

yag~ = oil, fat

43 FATHER

father

--

--

father, elder

--

--

a.a, ad.da d>t

--

--

abba b>p

--

ata, apa, baba, dede

ata =father; dede = grandfather

atam = my father, my ancestors

adam (insan) = human

apa =father, old man;

baba = father, old man

44 TO FEAR

terrify, tremble

--

frightened, nervous

fear ?

enemy, tremble

--

hu.luh

--

bu.luh

ni, ni2 (fear)

ur

korkmak, dehs^et duymak, kuruntu yapmak, titremek

bayîl-mak = to faint; korkut-mak = to terrify;

titre-mek = to tremble

bayil-mis^ = fainted

--

er = man, soldier

45 FEATHER

feather

--

pa[.mus^en]

kus^ tüyü, telek, yelek

kus^ tüyü = down feathers

46 FEW

to be few, etc

empty, destitute

low, small, weak

--

narrow

--

la2

sud, su

sig

--

sig 9, si

az

al (çîkar) = take away

-siz, -suz = suffix for emptiness

sîkî (küçük ) = tight; küçük = small; za-yîf = weak;

-cik, -cîk = diminitive suffix

sîkî = tight

END OF PART 1 OF 5
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